Guidelines to Heritage Site Survey and Documentation (Capturing, Digitizing and Documenting) for Tendering and Archiving in an Engineering Perspective in Palestine
Keywords: Heritage, Archive, Photogrammetry, Drones, AutoCAD, ArcGIS, Point Cloud, Palestine
Heritage Sites in Palestine are many with the different periods and varying historic sagas. Many Heritage sites in Palestine are of ancient and recent ages that require preservations and rehabilitations to preserve the sites in their original statures but rehabilitate them for reuse or attraction visiting sites as part of the history and heritage of the Palestinians throughout the ages.The owners of the projects required survey and documentation of the Palestinian Heritage sites to be documented for archiving exiting conditions of sites and preparation of tender documents for rehabilitation of products and as-built drawings and documentations for archiving. The heritage documentations preparations is not just a 3D Cloud point generation and a video or still photography but accurate documentation that contains drawing and surveys that has errors less than 3 cms in data capture and thereafter high accuracy in implementation for budgeting , tender documents and non-contractual discrepancies, errors, misalignments, minimizing contractual conflicts .. . The conventional survey capture using measuring tape, paper, pencil is time consuming and does not capture all details, yet produce high errors, and re-visitation of the site is required to recapture all data that is time consuming. This method is retired and the implementation of digital documentation of the entire complex including alleyways and roads , facades of buildings along the alleyways and the decorative details of existing buildings from the external and interiors with finite details, terraces, tiles, courtyards, roofs, technical features of infrastructure and installations for the restoration and revitalization of historical and heritage
sites is the way to implement digital documentations in less time and capturing finite details with minimum errors and less visits. To adapt and produce integrated digital accurate drawings and tender documents for the restoration process and determine the work
process accurately for all the above and prepare integrated tender documents for implementation of the works with minimum discrepancies we proposed total digital data capture and documentations of the sites and buildings internally and externally including alleyways that extend to a length of 300 meters, buildings of various heights and complex details.
The tools used for production of the sophisticated CAD drawings and digital survey capture are:
1. Drones to capture 3D models and nadir images of the site from the skies producing 3D cloud and stereo imaging to be
integrated in the CAD and modeling documentations
2. Photo scan and 3D Laser scanning technologies to capture facades , exterior and interiors of buildings including plans ,
elevations and cross-sections of all its details
3. Converting the imagery, laser scanning into 3D Cloud generation and translate it into the various formats including CAD,3D Modelling, DTM/DSM, 3D Scenes , Stereo Analysis using different software
The Palestinian rules and laws of the preservation sites were followed. The existing survey employed photogrammetry, 3D Cloud Generation by laser scanning, stereo imaging methods, Photographs and Drones. The data captured from the field is translated into 3D Cloud data and regenerated in the office to an Engineering and architectural drawing format with all details. The details of AutoCAD drawings is produced at 1:100 and 1:50 scales of the site in various layers, elevations, cross sections topographic maps and plans. The drawings contain information of vector data of all details including all wall hangings, electrical cables, doorbells, fixtures and analysis of degradations. The digital drawings and documentationsfor tender and archiving contain layers of the digital architectural structural, mechanical, electrical, infrastructure details with analysis of degradation. The Engineering office prepares documentations and drawings of existing and rehabilitation required for all the details produce tender documents that include Bills of Quantities, Works required to be implemented and a requirement for as-built drawings. The session will discuss in detail the A-Z steps to generate digital project documents so that Engineering Offices are given assistance to the knowledge of details for digital documentations for heritage generation, procedures to create digital documents to the heritage sites that can be archived for future references, studies and researches. . This includes 2D documentation and 3D models with mesh production to generate the actual picture of existing and planned structures.